This report presents the results of a study conducted for Parents as Teachers (PAT), an evidence-based home visiting model.
PAT includes goal setting with caregivers as a key component of its model, with family economic well-being among caregivers’ top goals. This quasi-experimental study investigated PAT’s effects on employment, education, and income using data from PAT’s management information system, called Penelope, and data from the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. PAT caregivers performed significantly better than the comparison group on key measures, suggesting that the program may boost family economic well-being. One year after intake, PAT caregivers were—
- 16 percent more likely to become employed
- 69 percent more likely to enroll in high school
- 12 percent more likely to enroll in college
We disaggregated the data by race and ethnicity and applied subgroup analyses and a moderation analysis, which found differences in outcomes between and within groups. Given the historical impact of institutional and structural racism on opportunities, further research could improve understanding of how home visiting interventions may help families overcome systemic barriers to achieving their employment and education goals.
We did not find evidence of increased family income for PAT caregivers. Study limitations included a 1-year follow-up that probably did not provide enough time to observe the effects of increased education on income.